Ch02. Present and Past, Simple and Progressive 정샘 영어 Academy Understanding and Using English Grammar.
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Ch02. Present and Past, Simple and Progressive 정샘 영어 Academy Understanding and Using English Grammar
SY English Academy2 Context Simple Present Present Progressive Stative Verbs that cannot be used in progressive tenses Am/ is / are being + adjective Using ‘Always’ with the Progressive verbs to complain Using Expressions of place with progressive tenses Simple Past Past Progressive Troublesome verbs Appendix 1. Summary of Adverb Clauses Appendix 2. Adverb Clauses Showing Time Relationships
SY English Academy3 1. Simple Present (a) Anna takes shower everyday. // habitual (b) I usually read the newspaper in the morning. // habitual (c) He always eats a sandwich for lunch. // habitual 단순현재형 : 아래 3 가지 경우 1) 과거에도 true 이고 현 재에도 true 이고 미래에도 true 인경우 : 주로 과학적 인 사실 2) habitual/usual activity - always, every, usually 와 함께 - now 는 현재 또는 현재 진행 둘 다 가능 3) 사실 (fact) 에 대한 서술 (d) It snows in Alaska. //fact (e) Babies cry. Birds fly. //fact (f) My class begins at nine. //fact (g) It doesn’t snow in Bankok. //fact (h) She needs a pen now. (i) She is reading a pen now. (j) Water consists of hydrogen and oxygen. // 진리 (k) The world is round. // 진리 simple Present now pastfuture
SY English Academy4 2. Present Progressive Anna is sleeping right now. I am reading my grammar book right now. I need an umbrella because it is raining now. Anna and Jim are talking on the phone now. 현재진행형 : be + ing 1) 과거에서부터 시작되어 현재 진행중인, 그리고 미래의 어느 시점에 끝날 예정인 행위에 대해 서술 - now, right now 와 결합 2) 어떤 사건이나 행위가 speaker 가 말하는 시점에 진행 중일경우 3) 어떤것이 이번학기, 이번주, 이번달, 올해에 진행중일 경우 (This semester, this month, this week, this year,…): 이 경우 진 행의 의미가 아니라 general activity 를 의미 today 는 여러시제와 결합가능. 즉 의미상으로 시제파악 - now 의 의미일 경우 현재진행 - 기간을 의미할 경우 현재완료 - 과거을 의미하는 부사구 / 동사 와 결합시 과거완료 - 과거진행 현재진행수동형 : being + PP I am taking five courses this semester. // 진행이 아 님 She is writing another book this year. The sun is shining today. She usually sit in the front row during class, but today she is sitting in the last row. Have you eaten something today? What had you done by the time you got to class today? What were you doing before Jim walked into the classroom today? It isn’t snowing right now. Is Jim sleeping now? The Present Progressive now startFinish?
SY English Academy5 3. Stative Verbs that cannot be used in progressive tenses Anna knows this grammar. Anna is knowing the grammar. (X) Kim is reading the text book. 진행형을 쓸 수 없는 동사 : 일반적으 로 상태동사 ( stative verb: describes state or condition) 는 진행형을 쓰지 않는다. 그러나 상태동사가 진형형으로 쓰일 경우 그 의미가 상태가 아닌 activity 를 의미하게된다. Know, believe,imagine, want, realize, feel Doubt,need,suppose,prefer,suppose,understand, Think *, forget,mean,recognize 비교 : I think he is a nice person. // existing state I am thinking about the grammar. // activity in progress Mental State Love,hate,fear,mind Like,dislike,envy,care,appreciate Emotional State Posses,have *,own,belong Anna has a car. // existing state Anna is having a good time. // activity in progress Possession
SY English Academy6 3. Stative verbs (cont.) Taste *, hear,see *,smell *,feel * The food tastes good. // existing state It tastes too salty. The chef is tasting the sauce. // activity in progress I see a butterfly. // existing state The doctor is seeing the patient. // activity in progress( 돌보다 ) He appears to be asleep. The actor is appearing on the stage. Sense perception Seem,cost,be *,consist of, Look *,owe,exist,contain, Appear *,weight *, Tom is foolish. // general characteristics Tom is being foolish. // Tom is doing something now that the speaker consider foolish. Other States Being + 몇몇 형용사는 temporary characteristics 를 의미. - Foolish, nice, kind, lazy, careful, patient, silly, rude, polite, impolite
SY English Academy7 4. Am/ is/ are/ being + Adjectives Anna is beautiful lady. Alex is nervous about the exam. Jim is tall and handsome. Be + 형용사는 stative 의미를 가짐. Jack doesn’t feel well, but he refuses to see a doctor. He is being foolish. //( 순간적으로 ) 어리석다.( 어리석게 행동하는 중 ) He is foolish. // 그의 본성이 어리석다. Be + being 형용사는 temporary, in progress behavior 를 의미. He is being old. (X) He is old. // He is getting old. Age 는 temporary behavior 를 의미하지 못한다. Bad,good, loud, responsible Careful,illogical,nice,rude, Cruel, impolite,noisy,serious, Fair,patient,silly,irresponsible, Foolish,kind,pleasant,unfair, Funny,lazy,polite,unkind, Generous,logical,quiet,unpleasant
SY English Academy8 5. Using ‘Always’ with the Progressive verbs to complain Mary always leave for school at 7:30. Anna always gets up at 5:30 A.M. Karen is always on time. Do you always eat breakfast? She doesn’t always eat breakfast. Always 는 habitual or everyday activity 이기 때문에 현재형 빈도부사 + 일반동사 Be 동사 + 빈도부사 의문문일경우 항상 주 어 다음에, 부정문일경 우 조동사 다음 Always 를 불평 ( 화내는 ) 하는 상황에서 진행형과 사용가능 Tom is always leaving her dirty socks on the floor for me to pick up. I am always/forever/constantly picking up his dirty socks. He is always messing up the kitchen! Do you ever take the bus to work? Yes, I do. I often take the bus. I don’t ever walk to work. I ever walk to walk. (X) // 긍정문에서는 always I always walk to work. (O) Ever= at any time, 늘, 항상. 언젠가, 기왕에, Ever 는 의문문과 부정 문에서 주로 사용. 긍정 문에서는 ever 대신 always 사용 Anna usually don’t eat breakfast. Anna never eats meat. (O) Anna doesn’t never eat meat. (X) // 이중부정 부정문일경우 일반적 으로 부정동사 앞에 (always 와 ever 는 예외 ) I sometimes get up at 6:30. sometimes I get up at 6:30. I get up at 6:30 sometimes. 는 문장의 첫번째에 올 수 있는 부사 100% 0% Always(=ever) Almost always Usually Often Frequently Generally Sometimes occasionally Seldom Rarely Hardly ever Almost never Never(= not ever) 긍정적 (positive) 부정적 (negative)
SY English Academy9 6. Using Expressions of place with progressive tenses Anna is studying in her room. Anna is in her room studying. Jim was reading a book in his bed. Jim was in his bed reading a book. Jim was reading in his bed a book. (X) 장소를 나타내는 전치사구가 가끔 be 동사와 ing 사이에 올 수 있다.
SY English Academy10 7. Simple Past Anna walked to school yesterday. Jim lived in London for 10 years, but now he lives in Seoul. I bought a new car 3 days ago. I slept for eight hours last night. 단순과거형 : 과거에 특정 시점에 발생 해서 과거에 종 료된 행위나 상황을 표현 1) 문장내에 과거를 의미하 는 부사, 전치사구, 부사절 이 존재 : yesterday, last ~, ~ ago, When 과 같이 시간의 부사 절이 같이 쓰이면 when 절이 주절보다 더 과거 Anna stood under a tree when it began to rain. When Mrs. Kim heard a strange noise, she got up to investigate. Where were you at five o’clock this morning? His plane will arrive this morning. What are you going to do this afternoon? // 현재진행으로 미래 What have you done since you got up this morning? this morning, this afternoon, this evening 같 은 시간의 부사구는 문맥의 의미상 현재완료 / 과거 / 미래 판단 Simple Past now PastFuture
SY English Academy11 8. Past Progressive I was walking down the street when it began to rain. While I was waling down the street, it began to rain. At seven o’clock last night, I was studying. Last year at this time, I was attending school. 과거진행형 : was/were + ing 1) 과거의 어떤 특정시점 에 진행중인 2) 또는 과거의 다른 행 위의 시점에서 진행중인 행위에 대해 서술 - 따라서 주로 시간 부사 절과 결합 시간의 부사절은 문두 에 올수있으며, 그경우 comma 사용 when vs. while - When + S + 과거 - While + S + 과거진행 I sat down at the dinner table at 6:00 P.M. yesterday. Tom came to my house at 6:10 P.M. I was eating dinner when Tom came. I went to bed at 10:00. The phone was rang at 11:00. I was sleeping when the phone rang. When the phone rang, I was sleeping. //when = at that time The phone rang while I was sleeping. //while = during that time It rained this morning. It was raining this morning. 과거형과 과거진행 형이 거의 같은 의미 로 사용됨. The Past Progressive now start Finish?
SY English Academy12 9. Troublesome Verbs Raise, raised, raised// ~ 을 들어올리다, 높이다 ( 향상시 키다 ), 키우다, Anna raised his hand. After studying very hard, Anna raised her grade substantially. The farmer raises chickens for a living. Rise, rose, risen, rising // 떠 오르다, 일어나다, ( 가격 ) 오르 다 The sun rises in the east. The oil price has risen since 2006. When oil and water mix, the oil raises to the top. Lay, laid, laid, laying // ~ 을 두다, 놓다 I am laying the book on the desk. Don’t lay your clothes on the bed. The nurse laid the baby in the crib. Lie, lay, lain, lying // 눕다, 누 어 있다, 위치하다 He is lying on his bed. The university lies in the western section of the town. Anna lay on the beach sunbathing yesterday. Lie, lied, lied, lying // 거짓말 하다
SY English Academy13 Appendix 1. Summary of Adverb Clauses Expressing 부사절 ( 종속절 ) - Subordinating Conjunctions Transitions 독립절 - Coordinating Conjunctions Preposition TimeAfterby the time (that) Beforeonce Whenas/so long as Whilewhenever Asevery time (that) Sincethe first time (that) Untilthe last time (that) As soon as the next time (that) Cause and effect Becauseso (that) SinceNow that( 이제 ~ 이기때문 ) Seeing that ( 이므로, ~ 을 고려하면 ) Therefore Consequently So, for Because of Due to contrastEven thoughWhile Althoughwhereas Though However Nevertheless Nonetheless On the other hand But (…anyway) Yet (…still) Despite In spite of conditionsIfWhether or not Only ifIn case (that) Even ifIn the event (that) Unlessproviding/provided (that) What if otherwiseOr (else) purposeSo (that)In order to
SY English Academy14 Appendix 2. Adverb Clauses Showing Time Relationship afterAfter she finishes the project, she will have a vacation. After she finished the project, she had a vacation. 시간의 부사절에서 현 제시제가 미래 시제를 대 신. 부사절이 문두에 오면, comma 를 사용해서 주절 과 연결 Afterward 는 부사로 절 을 이끌지는 못하지만 그 의미는 later, after that * afterwardShe finished the project, Afterward, she had a vacation. before I will leave before she comes. // 현재시제가 미래표현 I (had) left before she came. whenWhen I arrived, Anna was talking to him. When I got there, Anna had already left. When it began to snow, I sat on a bench. When I was in LA, I visited Hollywood When I see her tomorrow, I will ask her. // 현재시제 While, as While I was studying, it began to rain. As I was studying, it began to rain. = during that time by the time By the time he arrived, we had already left. ( 과거완료 ) By the time he comes, we will already have left. ( 미래완료 ) // 부사절에서는 현재시제가 미래를 표현 = one event is completed before the event of ‘by the time’ 주의 : 주절과 동속절의 시제차이 since I haven’t seen her since she left. // 현재완료 사용 I have known her ever since I was a child. = from that time to present
SY English Academy15 Appendix 2. Adverb Clauses Showing Time Relationship (cont.) Until, tillWe stayed there until we found the missing boy. I’ll wait until she gets here. Not until that evening was she able to finish her assignment. 전치사 until I had waited her until 6 o’clock, but she didn’t show up. = to that time and then no longer 시간의 부사절에서는 현 재형이 미래를 의미. Not until = before Not until 로 문장이 시작 되면 주어와 동사가 도치 됨 As soon as once As soon as it stops raining, we will leave. Once it stops raining, we will leave. = when one event happens, another event happens soon afterward ~ 하자마자, ~ 하면 곧바로 As long as So long as I will never forget her as long as I live. I will never forget her so long as I live. = during all that time = from beginning to end ~ 하는 동안 Whenever Every time Whenever he sees me, he says hi. Every timer he sees me, he says hi. The first time, The last time, The next time The first time I went to America, I visited Las Vegas. The second time I went to America, I visited Chicago. I met Anna the last time I visited America. The next time I go to America, I am going to see Anna.