Ch04. Verbs Tenses: Future Time 정샘 영어 Academy Understanding and Using English Grammar.
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Ch04. Verbs Tenses: Future Time 정샘 영어 Academy Understanding and Using English Grammar
2 Context Simple Future: Will and Be going to Using Simple Present to Express the Future time Using the Present Progressive to Express the Future Time Immediate Future: Using Be About To Sureness about Future Future Progressive Future Perfect and Future Perfect Progressive Expressing Present & Future in the Past
3 1. Expressing Future : Will vs. Be going to 1. 예측 (Prediction) -Prediction 의 미일 경우, be going to, 나 will 둘 다 사용 가능 According to the weather report, it will be cloudy tomorrow. = According to the weather report, it is going to be cloudy tomorrow. Be careful, you’ll hurt yourself. Watch out you are going to hurt yourself. 미래 : 미래의 어느 한 시점에 ( 현재의 조건을 기준으로 ) 일어날 일들에 대해 표현 will / be going to + 동 사원형 Will not = won’t 2. 즉각적의지 (willingness) (Immediate decision) The phone is ringing. Somebody please answer it. I’ll get it. (O) // 화자의 willingness I’m going to get it. (X) I will call you tomorrow morning. // 말하는 시점에서의 의사결정 말하는 시점에서의 의 사결정을 할 경우 Willingness 의미일경 우 will 만 가능 3. 시간, 일정 또는 계획 (Timetable, schedule, Plan) Why did you buy this paint? I’m going to paint my house tomorrow. Are you busy this evening? Yes, I’m going to go shopping. // prior plan. Be going to 만 가능 Well, I really haven’t any plan yet. I’ll/am going to eat dinner with my friend at the mall. Or, I’ll probably watch TV at home. (I’m probably going to) // predicting prior plan 이나 과거의 결정 (decision made in the past) 을 기준으로 미 래의 의도를 표현하는 경우, is going to 만 가능 going to = gonna 4. 단순미래 (Simple future) I am 20 years old this year. I will be 21 next year.
4 2. Using Simple Present to Express the Future time Tom will come soon. When he comes, we will see him. Anna is going to leave soon. Before she leaves, she is going to finish her work. I will get home at 7:00 PM. After I get home, I will get dinner. The taxi will arrive soon. As soon as it arrives, we’ll be able to leave for the airport. They are going to come soon. I’ll wait here until they come. When, before, after, as soon as, until 같은 시간의 부사절에서 미 래시제를 표현할때, will, be going to 를 사 용하지 않으며, 현재 형으로 미래 표현 While you are at school tomorrow, I’ll be at work. While I am traveling in Europe next year, I’m going to save money by staying in youth hostels. While you are at school, I’ll be at work. While 부사절에서는 현재진행형, 현재형 둘다 가능. 시간의 부 사절에서의 현재진행 형은 미래에 동작이 진행중일 것임을 강조 I will go to bed after I finish my work. I will go to bed after I have finished my work. Maybe it will rain tomorrow. If it rains tomorrow, I am going to stay home. If 절이 future possible 한 상황에 대 한 가정이면, simple present 가 미래표현에 사용
5 2. Using the Simple Present to Express the Future Time (Cont.) My plane arrives at 7:35 tomorrow morning. The museum opens at ten tomorrow morning. Classes begin next week. The semester ends in two more weeks. There is a meeting at the tomorrow morning. Definite schedule 이나 timetable 일 경우 현재시제가 미래 표현 가능 - Open, close, begin, end, start, finish, arrive, leave, come, return 같은 단어 I wear my new suit to the wedding next week. (X) I am wearing my new suit to the wedding next week. (O) I am going to wear my new suit to the wedding next week. (O) 주의 : 대부분의 동사는 구체 적인 스케줄이나 timetable 을 의미하지 않는다.
6 3. Using the Present Progressive to Express the Future Time Tom is going to go to the party tomorrow. Tom is going to the party tomorrow. // 확정된 계획 / 의도일 경우 I am going to stay home this evening. I am staying home this evening. Anna is going to fly to Chicago next week. Anna is flying to Chicago next week. My wife has an appointment. My wife is seeing a doctor next Monday. Sam has already made his plans. He is leaving at noon tomorrow. definite planned event 이 나 definite intention 일 경우 진행형으로 미래 표현 You are going to laugh when you hear this joke. You are laughing when you hear this joke. (X) 미래를 예언. 예측하는 경 우 진행형으로 미래 표현 불 가능. The movie will begin at seven tonight. = The movie begins at seven tonight. (O)// 현재 = The movie is beginning at seven tonight. (O)// 현재진행 = The movie is going to begin at seven tonight. (O) // 미래 따라서 구체적인 일정이 나 planned event 일 경우, 현 재, 현재진행이 모두 미래표 현 가능
7 4. Immediate Future: Using Be About To Anna’s bags are packed, and she is wearing her coat. She is about to leave for the airport. = She is going to leave in the next few minutes. Shhh. The movie is about to begin. be about to 는 즉각적인 미래에 일어날 사건 / 일 / 상황에대한 설명.
8 5. Sureness about the Future 100% sure: Will & is going to I will be in class tomorrow. = I am going to be in class tomorrow. = I feel 100% sure that I will be in class tomorrow. She will do well on the test tomorrow. Speak 가 미래의 어떤 사 실 / 상태 / 활동에 에 대해 100% 확실함을 느낄 때.(Prediction) 90% sure: will probably & Is probably going to Anna will probably do well on the test tomorrow. = Anna is probably going to do well on the test tomorrow. = Anna should do well on the test tomorrow. = Anna ought to do well on the test tomorrow. Anna probably won’t be in class tomorrow. = Anna probably isn’t going to be in class tomorrow. 긍정 : 조동사 + probably 부정 : probably + 조동사 50% sure: May Maybe + S + will Maybe + S + is going to Jim may come to class tomorrow, or Jim may not come to class tomorrow. I don’t know what he’s going to do. Jim may do well on the test tomorrow. = Jim might do well on the test tomorrow. = Jim could do well on the test tomorrow. Maybe Jim will come to class, and maybe he won’t. =Maybe Jim is going to come to class, and maybe he isn’t. Maybe + will/be going to = may Maybe 는 문두에 올수 있다.
9 6. Future Progressive I will begin to study at 8:00 PM. You will come at 8:30 PM. I will be studying when you come. // 시간의 부사절에서는 현재 형사용 Right now I am sitting in class. At the same time tomorrow, I will be sitting in class. 미래진행 : will be + ing / be going to be + ing 미래진행은 미래의 어떤 행위가 미래의 어떤 불특정 시간에 진행중일 것 임을 의 미. Don’t call me tonight. I won’t be at home. I am going to be studying at the library. // planned activity 미래진형형과 미래형의 비교 Don’t get impatient. She will be coming soon. = Don’t get impatient. She will come soon. soon 과 같이 indefinite time 을 의 미하는 단어와 함께 쓰일 시 미래진행이 나 미래형이 둘 다 가능. Future Progressive now startFinish?
10 7. The Future Perfect vs. Future Perfect Progressive I will graduate in June. I will see you in July. By the next time I see you, I will have graduated. I will have finished my homework by the time I go out on a date tonight. // 1 st : will have finished my homework. 2 nd : go out on a date tonight 미래완료 : will have + PP 미래의 어느 한 행위가 미래 의 다른 행위 시점에 시작되 기전에 완료되었음을 의미. Express an activity that will be completed before another time or event in the future. - by the time, by the next time + 현재형 I will go to bed at ten P.M. He will get home at midnight. At midnight I will be sleeping. I will have been sleeping for two hours by the time he gets home. 미래완료진행 : will have been + ing 한 사건이 미래에 발생해서 미래의 다른 사건이나 activity 이전에 진행됨을 강 조. activity 의 Duration 을 강 조. - By the time, for When professor Jones retires next month, he will have taught for 30 years. When professor Jones retires next month, he will have been teaching for 30 years. 어떤 경우 미래완료진행과 미래완료와 차이가 없음. 이 문장의 행위는 과거부터 시작되어 미래에 끝남 Future Perfect now startFinish? now startFinish? now startFinish? Future Perfect Progressive
11 8. Expressing Present and Future in the Past If I had the money now I'd buy a car. If you caught the ten o'clock train tomorrow you would be in London by supper- time, unless the train was delayed, of course. You look as if you were just about to scream. Supposing we didn't go on holiday next year? Would you follow me wherever I went? In a perfect world, you would be able to say exactly what you thought. 가정법 Unreal 의 경우 과거동사가 과거의 action/ 상태가 아닌 현재 또는 미래를 의미 Ten o'clock - it's time (that) you went home. Don't come and see me today - I'd rather