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양승룡 교수 식품자원경제학과 고려대학교 농식품가격분석론 (5) - 전략적 가격책정. 2 V. 전략적 가격책정 o. 가격정책 ( 전략적 가격책정 ) 의 과제 - 경영목표를 달성할 수 있는 최적의 가격 (optimal price) 을 부과 o. 전략적 가격책정의 중요성 -

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Presentation on theme: "양승룡 교수 식품자원경제학과 고려대학교 농식품가격분석론 (5) - 전략적 가격책정. 2 V. 전략적 가격책정 o. 가격정책 ( 전략적 가격책정 ) 의 과제 - 경영목표를 달성할 수 있는 최적의 가격 (optimal price) 을 부과 o. 전략적 가격책정의 중요성 -"— Presentation transcript:

1 양승룡 교수 식품자원경제학과 고려대학교 농식품가격분석론 (5) - 전략적 가격책정

2 2 V. 전략적 가격책정 o. 가격정책 ( 전략적 가격책정 ) 의 과제 - 경영목표를 달성할 수 있는 최적의 가격 (optimal price) 을 부과 o. 전략적 가격책정의 중요성 - 가격은 매출이나 시장점유율에 결정적 영향을 미침 - 광고 등 다른 마케팅 믹스 변수보다 신속하게 실행할 수 있음 - 효과가 여타 변수보다 빠르게 나타남 - 여타 마케팅 변수에 비해 저렴 o. 가격책정 목표 (pricing objectives) - profit: sometimes difficult to measure before pricing - return on investment: for a given level of investment - survival: lowest as possible - market share: flexible and aggressive - cash flow: to recover cash as fast as possible - status quo: pursue stability - legal and regulatory issues

3 3 o. 가격책정 요인 (factors affecting pricing decisions) - consumer's WTP - organizational and marketing objectives - costs - other marketing mix variables - channel member expectations - competition in the market - legal and regulatory issues

4 4 수요 (WTP) 추정 방법  실제 자료를 이용한 회귀분석 (regression analysis)  실험 분석 (experiment)  실제 또는 잠재적 소비자에게 설문 (conjoint analysis)  전문가 설문 (intuition) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 회귀분석 실험 소비자 설문 전문가 설문 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 타당성높다 높다 중간 - 높다중간 비용 자료에 따라 많다 중간적다 신제품 응용 여부 매우 어려움 가능 가능가능 기존제품 응용 여부가능 가능 가능가능 전반적 평가 기존 제품에여러 상황에 여러 상황에 신제품 또는 적당 유용 매우 유용 새로운 상황에 유용 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

5 5 1. 가격책정 방식 (strategic pricing methods) i. Cost-plus(-Markup) Pricing - very easy and convenient method - hard to be optimal - follower or atomic producer ii. Competitive Pricing o. Below - everyday-low-price (often lead to a price war) o. At - price is not important in non-price competition - should be alert in watching competitors' prices o. Above - higher quality - exclusive supply - better service - brand loyalty - prestige image

6 6 iii. Variable Pricing (price differentiation) o ․ Types of price differentiation - 1st degree (or perfect): One market, different price for each consumer - 2nd degree: only n prices charged - 3rd degree: two separate markets, most common o ․ Conditions for Price Discrimination - The market must be segmentable - Segmentation cost should not exceed benefit - Should not breed customer ill-will - No or little competition for the target market - Should not be illegal o ․ Bases for Price Discrimination: different price elasticity - Buyer's Income: high income group - Buyer's Age and Sex: x-generation, male - Buyer's Location: geographically isolated - Buyer's Status: new customer, big order - Quality of Products: deluxe vs. necessary goods - Timing of Consumption: urgent, off-peak

7 7 iv. Price Fixing (Cartel) - formal, overt agreement on price (homogeneous product) - allocation of revenue based on historical share, capacity, agreement - disturbing factors: free-riding, new products, new entrants, change in market power - usually illegal v. Tacit Collusion (price leadership) - no overt, informal conspiracy, but thru price announcements - leadership based on size, market share, cost efficiency, age, recognized forecast ability vi. Price bundling( 다발묶음 가격책정 ) and unbundling - 컴퓨터 본체, 햄버거 세트, 통신요금, 소프트웨어 - pure bundling and mixed bundling (= individual pricing + bundle pricing) vii. Nonlinear pricing( 다단계 가격책정 ) - 이중 가격 (two part tariff) : R(q) = B + pq, where B = fixed base price - 이 단계 가격 (two block tariff) : R(q) = p1*q1 for 0 x (p1>p2) - 전량수량할인 (all unit quantity discount) : R(q) = p1*q for 0 L (p1>p2) viii. Odd Pricing( 홀수가격책정 ) - $2.95 or $999.99 - to avoid price thresholds - left digit effect ix. Round Pricing( 짝수가격책정 ) - $1,000 or 5,000,000 만원 - prestigious image

8 8

9 9 2. 가격경쟁전략 (price competition strategies) i. Price Discount : creation effect + diversion effect (both internal and external) - Quantity discount: return benefit from economy of scale to buyers - Cash discount: price reduction on cash purchase - Seasonal discount: off-peak discount - Allowance: a conditional concession in price - Coupon: selective price reduction ii. Limit Pricing - sacrificing SR profits to maximize LR profits by reducing prices - keep new entrants from coming into the profitable business - usually under monopoly or tight oligopoly iii. Predatory Pricing (loss leaders or dumping) - Price below average cost - To expel competitors out of business - Usually by big producers - Often done for cash flow or liquidity - Usually illegal or leads to a price war

10 10 iv. Dynamic pricing Over product life cycle o ․ Market Skimming Pricing - sets price high first, then lower as the market matures and/or more competition appears - high demand - flat AC curve - low competition - prestigious image - high income and low price elasticity o ․ Market Penetration Pricing - sets price low first, expel competitors, gain consumer loyalty and raises price - weak demand - price sensitive consumers - steep AC curve in IRS - high potential competition - sale is important marketing tool

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