Presentation on theme: "1 Ch 20. Conditional Sentences 정샘 영어 Academy Understanding and Using English Grammar."— Presentation transcript:
1 Ch 20. Conditional Sentences 정샘 영어 Academy Understanding and Using English Grammar
정샘 영어 Academy 2 Context Modal Auxiliaries What is the Mood? What is the Subjunctive? Conditional Sentences: ‘If’ Clauses Conditional Sentences: Basics True Conditions Untrue (unreal) Conditions Untrue (unreal) Conditions: with progressive verb forms Using ‘Mixed Time’ in conditional sentences Using Could, Might, and Should Omitting If Omitting Words after If Implied Conditions Wish Conditions Hope/Wish Conditions As if / As though Rather Than : 선호 Would rather: 선호 + 가정법 What if
정샘 영어 Academy 3 1. Modal Auxiliaries: Introduction Modal = Related to Mood Mood = Speaker 가 말하려는 의도에 사용되는 단어 형식 (verb forms that are used to signal modality) Modality = 표현된 문장에서 Speaker 의 말하려는 의도 (believability, obligation, desirability, or reality ) 의 정도 Auxiliaries = 보조의 helping or supporting + Modal Auxiliaries: 문장에서 화자가 말하려는 의도의 정도를 표현 ( 보조 ) 하는데 사용되는 단어들 또는 단어의 형식 =
정샘 영어 Academy 4 2. What is the Mood ( 화법 )? Modality = Mood 무엇을 (What to be said- 화자가 말하려는 의도의 정도를 ) 어떻게 표현하는가에 (How to be said) 대한 문장형식 또는 동사 형식 동사와 문장기 준 구 분 Sentence Modality deals with sentence types, such as - declarative or indicative (a statement, 직설법 또는 평서문 ), - interrogative (a question, 의문문 ), - exclamatory (an exclamation, 감탄문 ), - imperative (a command, 명령문 ), - optative (a wish, 기원문 ), - Injunctive (prohibition, 금지문 ), - Subjunctive ( ?, 비사실문, 비현재문 ) Verb Modality deals with the modal verbs and the mood of verbs. 의미면 에서의 구분 Realis moods ( 진실모드 ) 화자가 말하는 내용의 사실성 / 현재성을 의미 ( 암시 ) 하는 표현형식 Indicative(= declarative) mood Irrealis moods ( 비진실모드 ) 화자가 말하는 내용의 비사실성 / 비현재성을 의미 ( 암시 ) 하는 표현 형식 : Subjunctive mood: necessity, possibility, requirement, wish or desire, fear, or as part of counter-factual reasoning.
정샘 영어 Academy 5 3. What is the Subjunctive? 개념 Some languages have special verb forms called 'subjunctive', which are used especially to talk about 'unreal' situations: things which are possible, desirable or imaginary. 형태고대영어에는 Subjunctive 폼이 존재했으나, 현재에는 should, would, could 같은 modal verb 와 동사의 특별한 형 태로 subjunctive 를 표현 - 일반동사 동사 원형 - Be 동사 be & were (if 가정법과 결합시 ) 동사원형동사원형 // after words which express the idea that something is important or desirable (e.g. suggest, recommend, ask, insist, vital, essential, important, advice). It is essential that every child have the same educational opportunities. It was important that James contact Arthur as soon as possible. Our advice is that the company invest in new equipment. The judge recommended that Simmons remain in prison for life. We felt it desirable that he not leave school before eighteen. // 부정형은 do 사용안함 I recommended that you move to another office. // 주절의 동사는 과거지만, that 절은 동원 be It is important that Helen be present when we sign the papers. The Director asked that he be allowed to advertise for more staff. If I were you I should stop smoking. // 가정법일 경우 I wish it were Saturday. // 가정법일 경우 관용어구관용어구 God save the Queen! God bless you. Long live the King! Heaven forbid. He's a sort of adopted uncle, as it were. (=... in a way.) Be that as it may... (= Whether that is true or not... ) If we have to pay $2,000, then so be it. (= We can't do anything to change it.)
정샘 영어 Academy 6 3. What is Subjunctive? (Cont.) 1) desirable situation: After words that express something is important or desirable The teacher recommended that we study hard for the exam. The teacher recommended that we not go to the concert. We felt it desirable that the he not leave the school. We felt it desirable that the he does not leave the school. (X) desirable 상황에서의 동 사형태 - that 절의 동사는 동사원 형 - be 동사는 If 절과 결합하 면 동사는 were 로 표현 - 부정문 : do 를 사용못함. Suggest 의 that 절에는 - To 부정사는 올수 없다. - 동사원형 또는 should + 동원 - That 절이 아니면 동명사 Her uncle suggests that she get a job in a bank. Her uncle suggested that she get a job in a bank. Her uncle suggested that she should get a job in a bank. Her uncle suggested getting a job in a bank. - 동사 : propose, suggest, recommend, demand, mandate - 형용사 : imperative, important, adamant, necessary, - 명사 : insistence, proposal, advice 2) Real/True Situation If my headache disappears, I can play football. (factual condition) = I have headache now so I cannot play football. It is, however, possible for me to play football if I don’t have a headache. 3) Unreal /Imaginary situation If my headache disappeared, I could play football. If my headache had disappeared yesterday, I could have played football.
정샘 영어 Academy 7 4. Conditional Sentence: Basics If clauseMain clause Real condition- (Future possible) If + S + simple present,S + simple present 과학적, 역사적 사실 같이 이 미 밝혀진 사실 누구나 예측 가능한 사실 Always, usually 같이 규칙적 이고 습관적인 행위나 상태 조건적 상황 (Future possible situation) (a) Water freezes if the temperature goes below zero. // 과학적사실 (b) If it rains, (then) the road gets wet. // 누구나 예측가능 (c) If I don’t eat breakfast, I always get hungry //habitual (d) If my headache disappears, I can play football. // 조건 If + S + simple present,S + will + simple form Real 가정법 현재와 동일한 테 다만 문장에 미래을 의미하 는 단어나 구가 동반할 경우 e.g.) tomorrow, next week, … (a) Water will freeze if the temperature goes below zero. (b) If it rains tomorrow, (then) the road will get wet. // 누구나예측가능 Unreal condition- 현재 / 미래 If + S + simple past,S + would + simple form 현재 사실의 반대 (a) If I had the time, I would go to the party. // I don’t have time now (b) If he were here, he would help me. // He isn’t here now Unreal Condition- 과거 If + S + had + past perfect,S + would have + PP 과거 사실의 반대 (a) If I had had the time yesterday, I would have gone to the party. // I didn’t have time yesterday (b) If he had been here yesterday, he would have helped me. // He wasn’t here yesterday
정샘 영어 Academy 8 5. True Conditions: ‘If’ clauses 일반시제사용하는경우일반시제사용하는경우 용도 1. 불확실한 event 나 situations 표현 ( 명사절 ) // 불확실한 상황이나 사건들에 대해 언급 할때 (talk about uncertain events and situations: things w hich may or may not happen, which may or may not be true) Ask John if he's staying tonight. (He may or may not be staying.) I wonder if Anna will come or not. 용도 2. 선행조건 Factual, predictive = First Condition = Real condition = True condition = Future possible = Realis // if 절과 주절의 시제는 일반적으로 일치, 또는 주절의 시제는 제한 없음 // 선행조건일경우 if 는 when, because, as 와 같은 접속사로 대치가능 If I see Anna, I'll give her your love. (I may or may not see Anna.) If you get here before eight, we can catch the early train. Oil floats if you pour it on water. Iron goes red if it gets very hot. If John didn't come to work yesterday, he was probably ill. If you didn't study physics at school, you won't understand this book. // 조건의 부사절에서는 현재가 미래를 대신 I'll give her your love if I see her. (NOT... if I will see her.) = I'll give her your love when I see her. (NOT... when I will see her.) If we have fine weather tomorrow, I'm going to paint the windows. = As soon as we have fine weather, I'm going to paint the windows. 특별시제경우특별시제경우 용도 3. Unreal Situation 을 표현 = Hypothetical = Counterfactual = Untrue conditions If I had enough time, I would watch TV every evening. If I were you, I would accept the invitation. If you had told me about the problem, I would have helped you.
정샘 영어 Academy 9 5. True Conditions: ‘If’ clauses (Cont.) 명사절 I wonder if Anna will come or not. // 올지 안올지 I wonder if he needs help. // 도움이 필요할 지 안 할지 if 가 명사절인 경우 동사의 목 적어 역할 부사절부사절 과거과거 If Jim didn't come to work yesterday, he was probably ill. If Jim didn't come to work yesterday, he needs to explain the reason why. If Jim didn't come to work yesterday, he will have twice much work today. If you didn't study physics at school, you won't understand this book. 가능한 조건을 표현하는 if 절이 과거이면, 주절은 현재, 과거, 미 래 모두 가능 if + 과거, S+ 과거 if + 과거, S+ 현재 if + 과거, S+ 미래 가능한 조건을 표현하는 if 절 이 현재이면, 주절은 현재, 과거, 미래 모두 가능 if + 현재, S+ 과거 if + 현재, S+ 현재 if + 현재, S+ 미래 if 부사절에서는 현재형이 미래 를 대신 현재현재 If I see her, I'll give her your love. If you heat water to 100 degrees celsius, it boils. If we have fine weather tomorrow, I'm going to paint my room. If it's raining now, then it was raining on the West Coast this morning. If it's raining now, then your laundry is getting wet. If it's raining now, there will be mushrooms to pick next week. 미래미래 If it rains tomorrow, the streets will get wet. // 현재가 미래시제 대신사용 If it rains tomorrow, I’m going to stay home. If it rains tomorrow, let’s go swimming. 가정법 If I have enough time, I watch TV every evening. If I have enough time, I will watch TV every evening. true/factual condition in the present and future true 가정법은 부사절 if 와 동일 If I had enough time, I would watch TV every evening. If I were you, I would accept the invitation. Present Untrue conditions Be 동사 -> were 일반동사 -> 과거형 If you had told me about the problem, I would have helped you. Past untrue conditions
정샘 영어 Academy 10 5. True Conditions (Cont..) Real 과 Unreal 의 차이는 누가 애기하냐에 따라 현실적 / 비현실적 으로 구분 // Real condition 과 Unreal Condition 과의 비교 If I become President, I'll ( 대통령 후보가 말 할 경우 ) //real If I became President, I'd ( 초딩이 말 할 경우 )//unreal If I win this 100m race, I'll ( 볼트가 말 할 경우 )//real If I won this 100m race, I'd ( 초딩이 애기하면 )//unreal Will it be all right if I bring a friend? ( 직접적인 요청 )//real Would it be all right if I brought a friend? ( 좀더 부드럽고 간접적인 )//unreal
정샘 영어 Academy 11 6. Unreal Conditions: Present /Future 상황 : I don’t have time to go to the movie, but I actually want to go. (a) If I had the time, I would go. // I don’t have time now (b) If he were here, he would help me. // He is not here now (c) If I were there, I would help him. // I am not there now (d) If I were you, I would accept the invitation. // I am not you Unreal situation 에 서 be 동사는 항상 were Past 상황 : I had headache yesterday so I could not play football, but I actually wanted to play football. If my headache had disappeared yesterday, I could have played football. ( 가설적인 조건 ) Could have played = would have been able to play 어제 두통이 사라 졌다면, 축구를 할 수 있었을 뗀데. 어제 축구를 못한 것 에 대한 아쉬움. Future:If + simple past, S + would + simple form Present: If + simple past, S + would + simple form Past: If + past perfect, S + would have + PP
정샘 영어 Academy 12 6. Unreal Conditions: with Progressive Verb forms Present /Future 현재 사실 : It is raining now, so I will not go to a park. If it were not raining, I would go to a park. 현재 사실 : I am not living in China. I am not working for China government. If I were living in China, I would be working for China Government. Past 과거 사실 : It was raining yesterday, so I didn’t go to a park. If it had not been raining, I would have gone to a park. 과거 사실 : I was not living in China. I was not working for China government. If I had been living in China, I would have been working for China Government. Present: If + were + ing, S + would + simple form Past: If + had been + ing, S + would have been + ing
정샘 영어 Academy 13 7. Using ‘Mixed Time’ in Conditional Sentences Present /Future 과거 사실 + 현재사실 : I didn’t eat the breakfast so I am hungry now. If I had eaten breakfast, I would not be hungry now. 현재 사실 + 과거사실 : He is not diligent. He didn’t finish his duty. If he were a diligent, He would have finished his duty. 가정법에 서 if 절과 주절의 시 제가 다른 경우
정샘 영어 Academy 14 8. Using Could, Might, and Should Could 현재가정 : If I were a bird, I could fly home. 현재가정 : If I could sing like you, I could join the opera. 과거가정 : If I had had enough money, I could have gone to Miami for vacation. Could = would be able to Could join = would be able to join Could have gone = would have been able to go Might 현재사실 : If I don’t get a scholarship, I might get a job. 현재가정 : If I were a better student, I might get a better grade. 과거가정 : If you have told me about your problem, I might have been able to help you. Might get = maybe I will get Might get = maybe I would get Might have been = maybe I would have been Should 현재조건 : If Anna should call, tell her I’ll be back around six. 현재가정 : If there should be another world war, the future of mankind would be in jeopardy. If Anna should call = If Anna calls Anna 가 전화하면 (90% 의 certainty) If there should be(90%) = if there were (100%) 보다 덜 불확실 Present: If + simple past, S + would + simple form Past: If + had + PP, S + would have + PP
정샘 영어 Academy 15 9. Omitting ‘If’ Could 현재가정 : If I were a bird, I could fly home. Were I a bird, I could fly home. 과거가정 : If I had had enough money, I could have gone to Miami for vacation. Had I had enough money, I could have gone to Miami for vacation. 현재조건 : If Anna should call, tell her I’ll be back around six. Should Anna call, tell her I’ll be back around six. If + were, had, should 는 때때로 If 가 생략. 그경우 주어와 동사가 도치 (inverted) 완료구문일 경우 조동사 Had 만 먼저 옴. Anna should call 는 90% 의 certainty 를 의미. Anna calls 는 100% certainty
정샘 영어 Academy 16 10. Omitting Words after ‘If’ I'll work late tonight if necessary. (=... if it is necessary) There is little if any good evidence for flying saucers. I'm not angry. If anything, I feel a little surprised. He seldom if ever travels abroad. If in doubt, ask for help. (= If you are in doubt... ) If 절에서 주어 + be 동사의 생략 if necessary, if any, if anything, if ever, if in doubt.
정샘 영어 Academy 17 11. Implied Conditions I would have gone to Miami with you, but I had to study. Implied condition: If I hadn’t had to study I never would have succeed without your help. Implied condition: without … if you hadn’t helped me. She ran to the bus station; Otherwise, she would have missed her bus. Implied condition: Otherwise = If she had not run… If 절이 없이 가정법을 암 시하는 용도로 사용 : but, without, otherwise 등 Otherwise 다음에는 가 정법 문장이 자주 나타남.
정샘 영어 Academy 18 12. Wish/Hope I hope that you will come. (=I don’t know if you are coming, but probably) I hope that you win the lottery. (=I don’t know if you win the lottery, but I want) I hope that you finished the assignment yesterday. (I don’t know if you finished the assignment yesterday or not, but I want) Hope 와 Wish 는 의미상 유사 하지만 문법적으로는 완전히 다름 Hope 는 앞으로 일어날 가능 성이 있는 일 또는 일어날 일 에 대해 서술 Hope 절은 모든 tense 가 가 능 I wish that you could win the lottery. (=You cannot win the lottery.) // 니가 복권에 당첨될 수 가 없어서 안타깞다. I hope you win the lottery. // 니가 복권에 당첨되기를 희망한다. I wish you would pass the exam. (X) // (=You will not pass the exam) 니가 시험 에 통과 못할 꺼니까 안타깝다. I hope you pass the exam. (O) Wish 는 앞으로 일어날 가능 성이 있는 일에대해 언급할때 사용되지 않는다.
정샘 영어 Academy 19 13. Wish 1) Want 의 의 미 I wish to see the manager, please. If you wish to reserve a table, please call after five o'clock. Wish + to 부정사 = want to We do not wish our names to appear in the report. I wish an appointment with the manager. (X) //Wish 다음에 목적 어만 단독으로 올수 없음. I want / would like an appointment with the manager. (O) Wish + 목적어 + to 부정사 Wish 는 목적어를 가질수 있지 만 그경우 to 부정사가 와야한다. Wish + 목적어 (X) Wish + 목적어 + to 부정사 I wish you a Merry Christmas. We all wish you a speedy recovery. Wish + Obj1+Obj2: 좋은 소식 을 전할때
정샘 영어 Academy 20 13. Wish (cont.) 2) Unreal Situation 의미 : I wish I had a yacht. (= I don’t have a yacht.) I wish tomorrow were Sunday. (=tomorrow is not Sunday) I wish I didn’t have to go to school today. (= I have to go to school today) I wish that 절의 구조에서 wish 는 더이상 want 의 의 미가 아닌, impossibility 와 improbability 를 의미하며, 그 반대상황에 대한 희망 또는 이루어지지 않는 것 에 대한 아쉬움을 표현. Wish that+ S+ 과거 : 현재 사실의 반대 Wish that+ S+ 과거완료 : 과거사실의 반대 Wish that+ S+ 조동사 /were ~ing: 미래에 대한 소 원 : - Could + 동사 - Would + 동사 - Were + -ing I wish you would 는 종종 request 하는 의미 that 절에 현재 / 미래시제 의 동사나 Modal 이 절대 못 옴. I wish that you had finished the assignment yesterday. (you didn’t finish the assignment yesterday) I wish that you could come to the party tonight. (=You cannot come.) // 니가 올수있 으면 좋겠으나 올 수 없어서 안타깝다 I wish that you would come to the party tonight. (= You are not coming.) // 니가 올수 있으면 좋겠으나, 안올거라서 안타깝다 I wish that you could win the lottery. (=You cannot win the lottery.) // 니가 복권에 당 첨될 수 가 없어서 안타깞다. She wishes she were coming with us. (=she is not coming with us) It is raining now. I wish it would stop. (I know it’s raining now but I want it to stop raining) I am expecting a call from Anna. I wish the phone would ring. (The phone is not ringing but I want it to ring) It’s going to be a good party. I wish that you would come. (I know you probably won’t come, bur I want you to come.) You are going to be late. I wish you would hurry. (I want you to hurry) 비교 I wish I spoke Spanish. ( = I don’t speak Spanish.) I wish I could speak Spanish. (= I cannot speak Spanish.)
정샘 영어 Academy 21 13. Wish (Cont..) // 미래 wish: 미래 사실의 반대 We wish that you could come to the party tonight. (in real you cannot come.) I wish that she were coming with us. (she is not coming with us.) I wish that the situation were going to change. (I think the situation is not going to change) I wish that the situation would (could) change. (I think the situation is not going to change.) I wish she would tell me the truth. (She will not tell me the truth, but I want her to tell me the truth.) 미래의 소원 wish( 미래 사실의 반대 ): S+ wish+ (that) +S+ were, could, would + V (or ing) // 현재 wish: 현재 사실의 반대 I wish (that) I had enough money to buy a new car. (in real I don’t have enough money.) I wish (that) I knew French. (in real I don’t know French.) I wish it weren’t raining now. (in real It is raining now. ) I wish I were rich. (in real I am not rich.) Jim wishes he were still young. (in real he is middle-aged.) I wish I could leave now. (in real I have to stay.) I wish we saw each other more often. (in real we rarely see each other.) 현재사실의 반대 wish: S+ wish+ (that) + S + simple past/were // 과거 wish: 과거 사실의 반대 I wish (that) you had been here yesterday. (in real you wasn’t here yesterday) I wish (that) Anna had come. (in real Anna didn’t come.) She wishes she could have come. (in real she could not come.) 과거사실의 반대 wish: S+ wish+ (that) + S + PP, could have + PP
정샘 영어 Academy 22 14. As if/ As though It looks like rain soon. = It looks as if it is going to rain soon. = It looks as though it is going to rain soon. = It looks like it is going to rain soon ( informal) As if/ as though + 절 : ~ 일 것 같다. Like + N As if/ as though + 절 Like + 절 : informal He is not a child. She talked to him as if he were a child. He has met her. He acted as though he had never met her. She will be here. She spoke as if she wouldn’t be here. As if/as though 는 가정법의 의미로 쓰이면 가정법과 문 법 동일 마치 ~ 인 것 처럼 ( 실제 사 실의 반대 )
정샘 영어 Academy 23 15. rather than: 선호 I'd call her hair black rather than brown. I'd prefer to go in August rather than in July. We ought to invest in machinery rather than buildings. I prefer starting early rather than leaving things to the last minute. I decided to write rather than phone/phoning. Rather than use/using the last of my cash, I decided to write a cheque. rather than 용법 : X rather than Y 주절에 to 부정사가 오면 rather than 다음에 동사원형또는 동명사 Rather than + 동사원형 / 동명사
정샘 영어 Academy 24 16. Would rather: 다음에 동사가 오는 경우 ( 단일 주어 ) Would you rather stay here or go home? How about a drink? - I'd rather have something to eat. I would rather be lying on a beach in Hawaii than (be) sitting in class now. I would rather go to a movie tonight than study grammar. I’d rather study math than (study) biology. //~ 하는게 ~ 하는것보다 좋다 = I prefer studying math to biology // ~ 보다 ~ 하고 싶다 1. Would rather 가 선호 (preference) 를 의미하는 경우 -would rather + 동사원형 : 현재의 선호 -would rather + Have PP: 과거의 선호 -would rather + 동사과거 (X): 이런표현 불가. 동사과거형을 쓰기 위해서는 would rather 다음에 주어가 와야 함. The movie was OK, but I would rather have gone to the concert last night. ( 어제 영화보다 concert 에 가기를 바랬었다.( 실제로는 영화보러 갔다 ) ) We would rather have moved to Busan than have stayed in Seoul. ( 서울에 있는 것보다 부산으로 옮기기를 원했다. ( 실제로는 서울에 있다 ) ) Jim would rather have slept than worked last night. I'd rather not go out tonight.// 부정형 : would rather + notWould rather ( 현재 선호 ) 의 부정형 - would rather + not + 동원 - would rather + S + not + 동원 I would rather (that) you not call me tomorrow. // 부정형 (O) I would rather (that) you does not call me tomorrow. (O) I would not rather (that) you call me tomorrow. (X) I'd rather like a cup of coffee. (= I'd quite like... ) would rather like 는 preference 의미가 아닌 quite 의 의미.
정샘 영어 Academy 25 16. Would rather (Cont.): 다음에 주어가 오는 경우 I would rather (that) you call me tomorrow. I would rather that he take this train. would rather (that) + S2+ 동사원형 : S2 가 ~ 행동 / 행위 하기를 원할때. would rather (that) + S2+ 동사과거 : S2 가 ~ 행동 / 행위를 하기를 원할때. ( 가정법 unreal 과거 ) - be 동사 were - 일반동사 과거 would rather (that) + S+ had PP: 과거의 행위에 대해 언급할때는 past perfect tense 도 가능 would rather (that) + S+ have PP: (X) : 이런표현 불가 Jim would rather that his girl friend worked in the same department. = Jim’s girl friend doesn’t work in the same department. Anna would rather that it were winter now. // 가정법 문장 = Jane wishes it were winter now. Tomorrow's difficult. I'd rather you came next weekend. Jim would rather that Anna had gone to class yesterday. = Anna didn’t go to class yesterday. I'd rather he went home now. (O)// 가장 common 한 표현 I'd rather he goes now. (O) // 현재시제도 가능 (unusual) I’d rather he go home now. (O) // 동사원형도 가능 (unusual) would rather (that) + S2+ 동사과거 가 일반적인 형식이나 would rather 다음에 현재형이나 동사원형도 가능 하나 unusual. My wife would rather we didn't see each other any more. Jim would rather that his girl friend didn’t work in the same department. // 부정형 Shall I open a window? - I'd rather you didn't. Jim would rather that Anna had not gone to class yesterday. // 부정형 I'd rather you hadn't done that. // 이 표현은 I wish 가 더 일반적 = I wish you hadn't done that. Would rather that + S 의 부정형 - didn’t + 동원 - hadn’t + 동원
정샘 영어 Academy 26 17. What if What if the bus is late? = What we should do if the bus is late? What will happen if she doesn’t like the roses? = What if she doesn't like roses ? What if + S + V : S 가 V 한다 면 ( 이다면 ) 어떻게 할까 ? 어떻 게 하지 ?