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Presentation on theme: "Trackbed material ENGINEERING CONCRETE MATERIAL"— Presentation transcript:

Korea National University of Transportation Dept. Railroad Infrastructure System Eng. Jeongho Oh, Associate Professor

2 Type of Concrete Pavement
Jointed Portland Concrete Pavement (JPCP) Continuous Reinforced Concrete Pavement (CRCP)

3 Type of Concrete Ballast
RHEDA 2000

4 Mechanical Behavior of Concrete Layer
Concrete material is sensitive to the change of humidity and temperature… 온도 깊이 온도 깊이

5 Concrete Material Concrete = cement (Lime + Silica) water + air + aggregate Paste = cement + water Mortar = Paste + fine aggregate

6 Components of Cement Material
Aluminates (알루미늄산염) C3A 5 ~ 15% 차지 Can cause premature stiffening Sulfates (황산염) CSH2 3~5% Reduces the chance of premature stiffening Silicates (규산염) C3S (50~70%) C2S (15~30%) 초기 및 장기 강도에 영향

7 Hydration (수화현상) 시멘트 혼합물에서의 수화 현상은 시멘트가 물과 결합 시 생기는 반응 혼합 초기에
Ettringite 생성 (C-A-S-H) 수화열 급속히 감소 초기 강도 발현 준비 초기강도 증가 Silicate Reaction C-S-H 혼합 초기에 수화열이 급속히 발생: C3A + H2O = CAH 양생전 초기 강도 발현 수화열은 sulfate에 의해 흡수 양생전 초기강도 억제 초기 수축 발현 콘크리트 인장강도 발생 – 균열 발생 가능성 본격적인 양생 시작 & 구조물 역할

8 Analysis of Concrete Material
Workability refers to the consistency, mobility, and compactibility of fresh concrete. Workability depends on: properties of aggregate and cement mixture method water content equipment construction condition

9 Slump Test Measures Consistency Use for QC
Recommended Values in Design Tables (b) Normal Slump (c) Shear Slump or Larger Collapse Slump

10 Slump Test The slump test is a means of assessing the consistency of fresh concrete. It is used, indirectly, as a means of checking that the correct amount of water has been added to the mix. The steel slump cone is placed on a solid, impermeable, level base and filled with the fresh concrete in three equal layers. Each layer is rodded 25 times to ensure compaction. The third layer is finished off level with the top of the cone. The cone is carefully lifted up, leaving a heap of concrete that settles or ‘slumps’ slightly. The upturned slump cone is placed on the base to act as a reference, and the difference in level between its top and the top of the concrete is measured and recorded to the nearest 5 mm to give the slump of the concrete.

11 Slump Test When the cone is removed, the slump may take one of three forms. 1) In a true slump the concrete simply subsides, keeping more or less to shape. 2) In a shear slump the top portion of the concrete shears off and slips sideways. 3) In a collapse slump the concrete collapses completely. Only a true slump is of any use in the test. If a shear or collapse slump is achieved, a fresh sample should be taken and the test repeated. A collapse slump will generally mean that the mix is too wet or that it is a high workability mix, for which the flow test (see separate entry) is more appropriate. 

12 Slump Test Poor consistency is indicated by:
Shear Slump = Lack of plasticity & cohesion Collapse Slump = Extremely wet or harsh Improve by changing proportions adding cement or fine aggregate to improve cohesion adjusting water content

13 Concrete Material Property: Compressive Strength (KS F 2405)
The compressive strength of concrete is the most common performance measure used by the engineer in designing buildings and other structures. The compressive strength is calculated from the failure load divided by the cross-sectional area. (Three 150*300 mm cylindrical samples are tested) Compressive strength can vary from 17 MPa for residential concrete, 28 MPa and higher in commercial structures, and even higher than 70 MPa for certain applications. For concrete pavement application, it is generally required to have 28 MPa of concrete compressive strength. For concrete ballast application (i.e. RHEDA 2000), it is generally required to have 50 MPa of concrete compressive strength.

14 Concrete Material Property: Compressive Strength

15 Concrete Material Property: Compressive Strength

16 Concrete Material Property: Compressive Strength

17 Concrete Flexural Strength =(Modulus of Rupture, 휨강도)
Test Method Flexural test (ASTM C78) or KS F (단순보 중앙점 하중법) or KS F (단순보의 3등분점 하중법) Where, The unit for strength is MPa

18 Concrete Elastic Modulus
The most common method to measure modulus is the secant modulus (ASTM C 469), Empirical equation: W is the density of concrete in pcf, Sc is modulus of rupture

19 Concrete Shrinkage and Creep (KS F 2424)
소성수축 (plastic shrinkage) :양생 전 물 증발에 의해 일어남 화학적 수축 (chemical shrinkage) :수화현상에 의해 물의 감소로 일어남 건조수축 (drying shrinkage) : 양생 후 환경적 변화 (습도, 온도)에 의해 일어남

20 Concrete Shrinkage and Creep (KS F 2424)

21 Concrete Thermal Expansion
Allowable limit for rigid pavement < 6.0 micro strain per degree F of concrete

22 Concrete Thermal Expansion

23 Overview of Concrete Material
이론적으로, 최대 강도는 수화현상에 필요한 물의 양이 있으면 발현 될 수 있으나, 실제 낮은 물-시멘트 비는 workability에 악영향을 미침 도로 시공에 있어서 동결융해에 대한 내구성을 확보하기 위해서 흔히 air-entrained concrete를 사용 At a given w/c ratio, Air Strength w/c ratio Strength

24 Air-Entraining micro bubbles improve workability improve durability

25 Air-entraining Admixtures
These admixtures acts as surfactants at the air-water interface and work to trap air in individual bubbles. The bubbles must be stabilized within the hardened paste. The tiny bubbles act as reservoirs to accommodate water expelled from the capillary pores during freezing action. Air entrainment will increase workability (especially if fly ash is used) and reduce bleeding action. As long as the air content is below 6%, little loss of strength is experienced. Although there is some concern over compatibility in mixtures containing multiple admixtures, a greater concern exists relative to dosage rates.

26 Volume Change causes Cracking
Highly restrained Cracking Low restraint Curling + Wheel Load  Cracking

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