1 Ch09. Comparisons 정샘 영어 Academy Fundamental English Grammar.
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1 Ch09. Comparisons 정샘 영어 Academy Fundamental English Grammar
정샘 영어 Academy 2 Context Comparative Adjectives: Introduction What are comparative adjectives? What are superlative adjectives? Rules for Forming Comparative & Superlative Forms Irregular Comparatives and Superlatives Equal Comparison Unequal Comparison Unequal Comparison 의 강조 Illogical Comparison ( 잘못된 비교 ) Multiple Number Comparatives Repeating a Comparative Double Comparatives: The + 비교급, The + 비교급 Negative Comparatives: No Sooner Comparison without ‘than’: using ‘Of the two’ Superlatives 유사 비교급 표현
정샘 영어 Academy 3 the longest modernmost best longer ier funn modernmore better long funny modern good ComparativesSuperlativesPositive There are 3 types of adjectives. The positive has no comparison. 1. Comparative Adjectives: Introduction the funniest
정샘 영어 Academy 4 What is an Comparative adjective? It’s a word which describes a noun and express the idea of ‘more’ to the noun fast big expensive car adjectivesnoun faster bigger More expensive car Comparative adjectives noun 2. What are Comparative Adjectives?
정샘 영어 Academy 5 Comparative Adjectives express the idea of ‘Max or Most’ fast-est His car is fast. Your car is faster. But my car is the fastest. 3. What are “Superlative Adjectives”?
정샘 영어 Academy 6 4. Rules for Forming Comparative & Superlative Forms 원급 형용사비교급 형용사최상급 형용사 one syllable adjectives/adverbs Long Fast hard 원급 + er Longer Faster Harder The 원급 + est The longest The fastest The hardest two syllable adjectives Famous Pleasant More + 원급 More famous More pleasant The most + 원급 The most famous The most pleasant ending in –y Busy Funny 원급 + (y i) + er Busier Funnier The 원급 + (y i) + est The busiest The Funniest Clever Friendly Cleverer More clever Friendlier More friendly The cleverest The most clever The friendliest The most friendly three or more syllable adjectives Famous Modern More + 원급 More famous More modern The most + 원급 The most famous The most modern -LY adverbs Slowly carefully More + 원급 More slowly More carefully The most + 원급 The most slowly The most carefully irregular adjectives/adverbs Good ( 형용사 ) Well ( 부사 ) Better The best
정샘 영어 Academy 7 5. Irregular Comparatives and Superlatives 원급비교급최상급 Far Farther( 거리, 시간상 ) 더 멀리 Further( 공간적 ) 더 멀리, Rome is farther from London than Paris is. The farther side of the bay ( 만의 저쪽 ) Further training would improve your job prospects. prevent further oil/chemical spillages. The farthest The Furthest LittlelessThe Least Much Many moreThe Most Good ( 형 ) Well ( 부 ) betterThe best Bad ( 형 ) Badly ( 부 ) worseThe worst
정샘 영어 Academy 8 6. Equal Comparison 1) as + 형 / 부사 + as 구조 Anna is 21 years old. Sam is 21. = Anna is as old as Sam (is). Tom came as quickly as he could. //as+ 부사 This grammar book is as good as yours. // yours = your book 비교 대상은 주격, 소유격, 목적격, 또는 부정칭 대명사 one 가능 His car runs as fast as a race car (runs).// 비교대상주어가 일반주어 His job is as difficult as mine. // 비교대상 주어가 소유격, mine = my job = His job is so difficult as mine. Their house is as expensive as that one. // 비교대상 주어가 부정대명사 one = house Anna is just as old as Sam. //just= exactly Anna is nearly as old as Sam. Anna is almost as old as Sam. 비교급 modifier 2) the same + 명사 + as 구조 He speaks Korean. She speaks Korean. = He speaks the same language as she (speaks). She is as tall as I. = She is the same height as I (am). // the same + 명사 + as 1) S + V + as/so + 형용사, 부사 + as + 주어 + ( 동사 ) 2) S + V + the same + 명사 + as + 주어 + ( 동사 )
정샘 영어 Academy 9 6. Equal Comparison (Cont.) Tom is 20. Jim is 21.Amy is 5. Tom is not as old as Jim. = Tom is not so old as Jim. His job is not as difficult as mine. // mine = my job = His job is not so difficult as mine. Tom isn’t quite as old as Jim. // quite, nearly 는 부정형 문장에서만 사용 Amy isn’t nearly as old as Jim. Equal Comparison 의 부정 - not + as (so) … as - not quite as … as = a small difference - not nearly as …as = a big difference Quite 와 nearly 는 부정형에 서 주로 사용되는 modifier // 참고 My watch is the same as yours. // 같은 종류 ( 동일한 제품 ). Yours = your watch His language is not the same as hers. My nationality is different from hers. // My 라는 소유격 때문에 소유격이 비교대상 Our climate is different from Canada’s. // Our 라는 소유격 the same as 는 같은 종류 ( 동 일 제품 ) 를 의미 The same as 의 반대말은 different from 이지 different than 이 아님.
정샘 영어 Academy 10 7. Unequal Comparison Unequal Comparison 1: -er than “A” is older than “B”. “A” and “B” are older than “ C” and “D”. I’m older than my brother (is). I’m older than he is. I’m older than him. // informal than 다음에 목적 격이 올 수 있는데 이는 informal He works harder than I do. // I do = I work I arrived earlier than they did.// they did = they arrived 조동사 가 비교대 상 주어 다음에 올 수 있음 Anna’s hair is longer than Kate’s // kate’s = kate’s hair Jim’s apartment is smaller than mine. // mine = my apartment 비교 대상이 소유 격 명사 또는 목적격 대명사 가능 Adjective + er Adverb + er 1. + than + Noun pronoun 명사 2. + as + Noun pronoun many much little few + as 명사 / 형용사 / 부사 3. + than + Noun pronoun more fewer less +
정샘 영어 Academy 11 7. Unequal Comparison (Cont.) Unequal Comparison 2: As many/much/little /few + 명사 +as He earns as much money as his brother. They have as few classes as we. 명사를 비교할때 는 count noun 이냐 non-count noun 이 냐를 잘 구분해서 determiner 를 사용 He speaks more fluently than I (do). // fluently 는 부사 He visits his family less frequently than she does. I have more books than she. = I have as many books as she. February has fewer days than March. = February has as few days as March.
정샘 영어 Academy 12 7. Unequal Comparison (Cont..) Unequal Comparison 3: More/fewer/less + 형 / 명 / 부사 Anna is taller than Tom. = Anna is more tall than Tom. // 주의 Anna is more taller than Tom. (X) // 비교급이 둘 비교급이 둘이 동시에 사용될 수 없음 more/fewer/less 다음에는 반드 시 형용사 원급, 부사, 또는 명사 사용 Jim’s watch is far more expensive than mine. He speaks English much more rapidly than she does Spanish. She dances much more artistically than her predecessor. Would you like some more coffee? Would you like some more? //more 다음의 명사는 생략가능 Not everyone is here. I expect more people to come later. There are more people in China than there are in the United States. Hyundai cars are less expensive than Toyota cars. // 2 음절이상인 경우 = Hyundai cars are not as expensive as Toyota cars. A pen is not as large as a book.// 단음절인 경우 A pen is less large than a book. (X) 단음절인 경 우 as…as 만 가 능
정샘 영어 Academy 13 8. Unequal Comparison 의 강조 Tom is very old. Anna drives very carefully. Tom is very older than I am. (X) Anna drives very more carefully than she used to. (X) 비교급의 modifier 로 very 사용 불가 Tom is older than I (am). Tom is much/a lot/far older than I am. (O) = Tom is far more old than I. (O) Tom is a little (bit) older than I am. Tom is a little (bit) older than me. // informal Anna drives much/ a lot/far more carefully than she used to. (O) His car is far better than yours. A watermelon is much sweeter than a lemon. 비교급의 modifier 들 : - much ( 불가산 ) - many ( 가산 ) - a lot, - far - a little (bit) Jim’s watch is far more expensive than mine. He speaks English much more rapidly than she does Spanish. She dances much more artistically than her predecessor. more/fewer/less 다 음에는 반드시 형용사 원급, 부사, 또는 명사 사용 Would you like some more coffee? Would you like some more? // more 다음에 나오는 명사는 뜻이 명확하면 생략가능 Not everyone is here. I expect more people to come later. There are more people in China than there are in the United States. oldermuch / far / a lot / a little bit + more old /money ( 불가산 명사 ) much / far / a lot / a little bit + more opportunities ( 가산 명사 ) many / far / a lot / a little bit +
정샘 영어 Academy 14 9. Illogical Comparison ( 잘못된 비교 ) Anna likes her dog better than her husband.// unclear Anna likes her dog better than her husband does.// does = like the dog Anna likes her dog better than she does husband does. // does = likes His drawings are as perfect as his instructor. (X) // 비교 대상의 잘못 Drawings vs. instructor His drawings are as perfect as his instructor’s. (O) Instructor’s (=instructor’s drawings) vs. his drawing 비교급에서 비교 대 상은 동일한 자격을 가 져야 한다. The salary of a professor is higher than a secretary. (X) Salary vs. secretary The salary of a professor is higher than that of a secretary. (O) The salary of vs. that of The duties of a policeman are more dangerous than a teacher. (X) Duties vs. teacher. The duties of a policeman are more dangerous than those of a teacher. (O) Those of vs. the duties of Classes in the university are more difficult than those in high school. (O) Your accent is not as strong as my mother’s. (O) // mother’s = mother’s accent The climate in Florida is as mild as that of California. (O) // that of = the climate of
정샘 영어 Academy 15 10. Multiple Number Comparatives This book costs twice as much as the other one. Jim ate three times as many oysters as Anna. Tom has half as many CDs now as I had last year. 비교급에서 비교 대 상은 동일한 자격을 가져야 한다. S + V ++ Noun pronoun Twice Three times Half, … As Much (noun) as As many (noun) as +
정샘 영어 Academy 16 11. Repeating a Comparative Because he was afraid, he walked faster and faster. Life in the modern world is becoming more and more complex. 비교급의 반복은 무엇인가가 진행적으로 질, 농도, 양, 크기 등 이 커지고 있는 상태를 강조
정샘 영어 Academy 17 12. Double Comparatives: The + 비교급, The + 비교급 The hotter it is, the more miserable I feel. The higher we flew, the worse Anna felt. The bigger they are, the harder they fall. the better The sooner you take the medicine, the better you will feel. 의미 : ~ 머머 할 수록 더욱 ~ 하다. The more you study, the smarter you will become. The more you rowed the boat, the farther away he got. The more he saves money, the higher the price of a house goes. The + 비교급 ++ S + VS + V, The + 비교급 The more ++ S + VS + V, The + 비교급
정샘 영어 Academy 18 13. Negative Comparatives: no sooner No sooner had we started out for California, than it stared to rain. No sooner will he arrive, than he will want to live. No sooner had she entered the building, than she felt the presence of somebody else. No sooner = as soon as 부정형 부사가 문두에 오면 그 문장은 도치 Tom no longer studies at the university. = Tome does not study at the university anymore. Anna may no longer use the car because it’s more than 15 years old. = Anna may not use the car anymore No longer = not anymore No sooner ++ S + V 조동사 + S + V than S + No longer + V
정샘 영어 Academy 19 14. Comparison without ‘than’: using ‘Of the two’ Anna is the smarter of the two women. = Of the two women, Anna is the smarter. Of the two shirts, this one is the prettier. Of the two books, this one is more interesting. 일반적으로 비교 대상이 2 개인경우 : 비교급, 3 개 이상 인 경우 : 최상급 S + V + The + 비교급 More + 원급 + Of the two + noun Of the two + Noun, + The + 비교급 More + 원급 + S + V
정샘 영어 Academy 20 15. Superlatives Anna drove more cautiously than Jim. // 부사의 비교급 Anna drove the most cautiously of all. // 부사의 최상급 in + the (this..) + group 명 - in the world, - in the team, - in the class of + 복수형 ( 대 ) 명사 - of all - of them Anna is the smartest in the class. Tom is the shortest of the family. David is the most generous person I have ever known. Irene plays the most recklessly of all. These shoes are the least expensive of all. Korea is one of the most successful countries in Economic Kuwait is one of the biggest oil producers in the world. Ali is one of the best students in this class. = One of the best students in this class is Ali. One of the + 최상급 + 복수형 명사 + 단수동사 // 참고 : 2 개 비교시 최상급 사용하는 경우 I like Anna and Mary, but I think Anna's the nicer of the two. (O) I like Anna and Mary, but I think Anna's nicest of the two. (O) I'll give you the bigger/biggest steak: I'm not very hungry. 일반적으로 비교 대상이 2 개 인경우 : 비교급, 3 개 이상인 경 우 : 최상급, 그러나 2 개을 비교 하더라도 최상급으로 표현 ( 주 의 : 이를 잘못된 표현이라고 생 각하는 학자도 있음 ) S + V + Adjective + est Most + adjective Least + adjective + In + 단수 /group Of + 복수 the +
정샘 영어 Academy 21 16. Superlative 의 강조 Tom is very old. Anna drives very carefully. Tom is very older than I am. (X) Anna drives very more carefully than she used to. (X) 비교급의 modifier 로 very 사용 불가 Tom is older than I (am). Tom is much/a lot/far older than I am. (O) = Tom is far more old than I. (O) Tom is a little (bit) older than I am. Tom is a little (bit) older than me. // informal Anna drives much/ a lot/far more carefully than she used to. (O) His car is far better than yours. A watermelon is much sweeter than a lemon. 비교급의 modifier 들 : - much/many - a lot - far - a little (bit) Bring out your very best wine - Michael's coming to dinner. You're the very first person I've spoken to today. This is your very last chance. 최상급의 modifier 들 ( 강조 ) the very + 최상급 the very + first + 명사 the very + next + 명사 the very + last + 명사 much + 최상급 by far + 최상급 quite( = absolutely), nearly, easily, almost, easily, practically + 최 상급 He's much the most imaginative of them all. She's by far the oldest. We're walking by far the slowest. He's quite the most stupid man I've ever met. I'm nearly the oldest in the firm. This is easily the worst party I've been to this year.
정샘 영어 Academy 22 16. 유사 비교급 표현 John and Mary have the same books. // same 은 반드시 the 와 결합 John and Mary have similar books. John and Mary have different books. the same, similar, different 는 비교 급 형용사 역할 명사 and 명사 + V +the same+ 명사 명사 and 명사 + V +similar+ 명사 명사 and 명사 + V +different+ 명사 Their books are the same. Their books are similar. Their books are different. be + the same be + similar be + different This book is the same as that one. This book is similar to that one. This book is different from that one. the same as that + 명사 be similar to that + 명사 be different that + 명사 She is the same age as my mother. My shoes are the same size as yours. 명사가 the same 가 as 사이에 올 수 있음 My book is like your book. My book and your book are alike. 명사 + be like + 명사 명사 + and + 명사 + be alike She looks like her sister. It looks like rain. It sounds like thunder. This material feels like silk. That smells like gas. This chemical tastes like salt. Stop acting like a fool. He seems like a nice fellow. The twins look alike. We think alike. Most four-year-olds act alike. My sister and I talk alike. The little boys are dressed alike. Alike 는 be 동사 이외에 다른 동사뒤 에도 나옴 - looks alike - act alike - think alike