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제 11 장 동 사 의 시 제 1. 기본시제 A. 현 재 : I work. B. 과 거 : I worked. C. 미 래 : I will work. 2. 완료시제 A. 현재완료 : I have worked. B. 과거완료 : I had worked. C. 미래완료 :

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Presentation on theme: "제 11 장 동 사 의 시 제 1. 기본시제 A. 현 재 : I work. B. 과 거 : I worked. C. 미 래 : I will work. 2. 완료시제 A. 현재완료 : I have worked. B. 과거완료 : I had worked. C. 미래완료 :"— Presentation transcript:


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3 동 사 의 시 제 1. 기본시제 A. 현 재 : I work. B. 과 거 : I worked. C. 미 래 : I will work. 2. 완료시제 A. 현재완료 : I have worked. B. 과거완료 : I had worked. C. 미래완료 : I will have worked. 3. 진행시제 A. 현재진행 : I am working. B. 과거진행 : I was working. C. 미래진행 : I will be working. 4. 완료진행 A. 현. 완. 진행 : I have been working. B. 과. 완. 진행 : I had been working. C. 미. 완. 진행 : I will have been working.

4 ◈ 1. 기본시제 ◈ A. 현재시제 1. He is a student. ( 현재 상태 ) 2. Here comes the bus. Here he comes. ( 현재 동작 ) 3. He usually gets up at six. ( 현재 습관, 반복적 동작 ) 4. The Earth moves round the Sun. ( 불변 진리, 사실 ) 5. ( 시간, 조건 부사절 : 현재형으로 미래 대용 ) 6. ( 미래대용 ) : 왕래발착 동사 + 미래 부사 I will wait here until she comes back. If it rains tomorrow, I will stay home. He starts(= will start) tomorrow. He leaves here tonight. Tomorrow is Min-ho’s birthday.

5 1. He read the book yesterday. ( 과거 동작 ) He was very poor then. ( 과거 상태 ) 2. We took a walk before breakfast. ( 과거 습관 ) He would sit for hours doing nothing. ( 불규칙 습관 ) * She used to go to school on foot. ( 규칙적 습관 ) * There used to be a big well there. ( 과거계속적 상태 ) B. 과거시제 She is used to driving a car. {= be accustomed to + do(= to + 명사형 )} You’ll be used to the Korean way of life. I got used to going to bed early and rising early. : 동작을 강조 : ~ 에 익숙해져 있다.

6 1. 단순미래 :( 시간에 따른 미래 ) 2. 의지미래 C. 미래시제 b)A:Shall I open the door? B:Yes, please. A:Will you come next week? B :Yes, I will.No,I won’t. A:Shall he come in? B:Yes, let him come in. I will be ten next year. You will soon get well. It will rain tomorrow. a) 평서문 : 1. 주어 의지 2. Speaker 의지 b) 의문문 : You 의지 a) 1. I ( You, He ) will fight to the last. 2. A: I will do my best A: You shall go.(= I will let you go.) A: He shall go.(= I will make him go.) Will I succeed? Will you be free tomorrow? Will he come tomorrow? ( 영국 : s -w-w. s-s -w ~? )

7 ◈ 2. 진행시제 => I will be working this time tomorrow. be 동사 + ~ing ◈ A. 현재진행 : am(are, is) + ~ing He is writing a letter to her. I am leaving here tomorrow morning. ※ 왕래발착 동사 ( go, come, start, leave, arrive) => 진행형으로 가까운 미래 표현 I am going to the park. ( 진행 ) I am going to the park tomorrow.( 예정 ) I am going to write a letter to her.( 예정 ) She is to be married next year. ( 예정이다 ) He is about to start for America.( 막 ~ 하려 고 하다 ) B. 과거진행 : was(were) + ~ing We were watching TV when the bell rang. C. 미래진행 : will(shall) be + ~ing { 미래 대용 표현 }

8 ※ 진행형 쓸 수 없는 동사 ※ ( 계속적인 상태를 나타내는 동사들 ) 감정 ( know, like, love..), 소유 ( have, belong.. ) 지각 ( see, hear, smell..) 는 진행형 할 수 없음. I am knowing him very well.( X )=> I know him very well. He is loving her. ( X )=> He loves her. She is having a book.( X )=> She has a book. (cf) She is having lunch. = She is eating lunch. I am belonging the club.( X )=> I belong to the club. This flower is smelling sweet.( X )=> This flower smells sweet.

9 ◈ 3. 완 료 시 제 ◈ A. 현재완료 : have(has) + p.p. B. 과거완료 : had + p.p. C. 미래완료 : will(shall) + have + p.p. 과거완료 현재완료 미 래 완 료 ( 대과거 ) had worked ( 과 거 ) worked ( 현 재 ) work ( 미 래 ) will work

10 A. 현재완료 : have(has) + p.p. ( 내용 ) 1: 동작의 완료 2: 현재까지 의 경험 3: 동작의 결과 4: 상태, 동작의 계속 1: 완료 ( just, already, yet, now... 등과 종종 쓰임 ) I have just finished my homework. They have already finished the work. ( 벌써 ) I have not met your sister yet. ( 부정문 : 아직 ) Has he left here yet ? ( 의문문 : 벌써 ) 2: 경험 (ever, never, before, once.. 등과 종종 쓰임 ) I have never seen such a pretty girl. I have been to America twice. (~ in London.) Have you ever seen the sunrise? Yes, I have. (=Yes, I have seen it three times. ) No, I haven’t. (=No, I have never seen it.)

11 3. 결과 He has lost his watch. (=> ) He has gone to America. (=> ) (cf) 4. 계속 ( since~, for~... 등과 종종 쓰임 ) 1. 상태의 계속 : have + P.P 2. 동작의 계속 : have + been + ~ing He lost his watch, and he hasn’t found it yet. He went to America, and he isn’t here. 1,2 인칭에 사용 不 I (You) have gone to Paris.(X) 1. I have known her since she was a child. *( I have been knowing her since ~. (X) ) 2. He has been studying English for ten years. *( He has studied English for ten years. (X) )

12 It is (= It has been) ten years since he died. = ※ ( 계속 의미 표현 주의 ) 1. 동작 의미 동사의 계속 의미 표현 => 완료 진행형 2. live, stay 등 동사는 상태, 동작 포함 => 현재완료와 현재완료 진행형 모두 쓰임 I have written six letters since this morning. ( 완료 ) I have been writing letters since this morning. ( 계속 ) She has lived here for five years. = She has been living here for five years. *(It is + 시간 + since~ = It has been+ 시간 +since~) Ten years since he died. He has been dead for ten years. It was ten years ago that he died. He died ten years ago

13 He has come home just now.( ) He came home just now. a) 확실한 과거 ( yesterday, then, ago, last~...) 와 just now ( 이제 막 ) 은 쓸 수 없음 X b) 의문사 when 과 쓸 수 없음 When have you written the letter?( ) When did you write it ? ※ 현재 완료와 쓰일 수 없는 어구 X X He has returned yesterday.( ) He returned yesterday. ( 비교 ) He has just come home. ( just 또는 now ) We have had much rain this year. ( 현재포함과거 )

14 B. 과거완료 : had + p.p. ( 과거 어느 때를 기준하여 그 때까지의 동작, 상태 등의 완료, 경험, 계속, 결과를 나타냄 ) 1. 완료 I had finished my homework when he came in. 2. 경험 I knew him at once, for I had seen him before. 3. 계속 He had been ill for two weeks when he died. 4. 결과 I found that I had lost my watch. ※ 대과거 : 어느 과거보다 먼저 일어난 동작, 상태 I lost the watch that I had bought it the day before. =I bought a watch, and lost it the next day. ( 발생순서 )

15 C. 미래완료 : will, shall + have + p.p. ( 미래 어느 때 까지 의 완료, 경험, 결과, 계속 ) 1. 완료 I will have read this book by tomorrow. 2. 경험 If I read it again, I shall have read it twice. 4. 계속 : ( 상태의 계속 ) You will have lived here for a year by next week. 3. 결과 He will have bought a house by that time.

16 It will have been raining for a week by tomorrow. ◈ 4. 완료진행 => A. 현. 완. 진행 : B. 과. 완. 진행 : C. 미. 완. 진행 : 현재, 과거, 미래의 동작의 계속 ◈ I have been studying English for three years. 현재완료 진행형 과거완료 진행형 I had been reading a novel till he came. 미 래완 료 진행형 have(has) + been + ~ing had + been + ~ing will(shall) + have + been + ~ing

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