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Distillation 증류 蒸溜 (1) Prof. Hyunsoo Moon

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Presentation on theme: "Distillation 증류 蒸溜 (1) Prof. Hyunsoo Moon"— Presentation transcript:

1 Distillation 증류 蒸溜 (1) Prof. Hyunsoo Moon
School of Biological & Chemical Engineering, Yanbian University of Science and Technology

2 Contents 목차 目次 Introduction: Mass transfer operations and phase equilibrium 서론 序論: 물질전달 物質傳達操作과 상평형 相平衡 Vapor-liquid equilibrium 기액평형 氣液平衡 Single stage distillation: Flash distillation 1단 증류 1段 蒸溜: 플래쉬 蒸溜 Multi-stage distillation: Rectification (or Distillation) 다단 증류 多段 蒸溜: 정류 精溜(또는 증류)

3 How can the following mixtures be separated? 다음의 혼합물은 어떻게 분리될 수 있는가?
Water and ethanol 물과 에탄올 Air (oxygen (O2) and nitrogen (N2) gas mixture) 공기 (산소와 질소의 기체 혼합물) Natural gas with acid gases (산 기체들이 들어있는 천연가스) Pure water from sea water (바닷물로부터 먹을 수 있는 물) Biodiesel from biodiesel reaction mixture (바이오디젤 반응 혼합물로부터 바이오디젤)

4 1. Introduction: Mass transfer operations and phase equilibrium
서론: 물질 전달 조작과 상평형 序論: 物質 傳達 操作과 相平衡

5 Mass transfer & its applications 物質 傳達과 그 應用
Process 工程 : The conversion of feed materials to products using physical and chemical operations (用物理及化学的操作方式把原材料转换成产品的过程) Unit operations and engineering principles 單位 操作과 工學 原理 Transportation 수송, fluid handling, and mixing 교반: fluid mechanics 유체역학 Heating & cooling 가열 및 냉각: heat transfer 열전달 Reaction 반응: Reaction engineering 반응공학 Separation 분리 (distillation 증류, gas absorption 기체흡수, drying 건조, membrane separation 막분리, adsorption 흡착, extraction 추출, leaching 침출, crystallization 결정화): mass transfer

6 Mass transfer operation in a chemical process
화학공정에서의 물질전달 조작

7 Mass transfer operations in a bioprocess
생물공정에서의 물질전달 조작 Biomass

8 Phase equilibrium applications 相平衡 應用
Mass transfer operations are applications of phase equilibrium principle 물질전달 조작은 상평형 원리의 응용이다. Applications of phase equilibrium data: separation equipment design 상평형 데이터의 응용: 分離 裝置 設計 Distillation column, absorption column : V/L equilibrium Extraction column: L/L equilibrium Mass transfer operation principle 물질 전달 조작 원리 Processes such as distillation, absorption, and extraction bring phases of different composition into contact, and when the phases are not in equilibrium, mass transfer between the phases alters their compositions. Both the extent of change and the rate of transfer depend on the departure of the system from equilibrium (driving force 구동력) Moves until equilibrium! 평형에 도달할 때 까지 이동한다!

9 Thermodynamic equilibrium 열역학적 평형 熱力學적 平衡
Equilibrium means a state of balance 균형상태均衡 狀態. In a state of thermodynamic equilibrium, there are no net 순純 flows of matter or of energy, no phase changes, and no unbalanced potentials (or driving forces), within the system. In thermodynamics, a thermodynamic system is in thermodynamic equilibrium when it is in thermal equilibrium 열적 평형, mechanical equilibrium 기계적 평형, phase equilibrium 상평형, and chemical equilibrium 화학적 평형.

10 Cases of thermodynamic equilibriums 열역학적 평형의 종류
기계적 평형 (힘이 같다) 열적 평형 (온도가 같다.)

11 Phase equilibrium diagram
상평형 다이어그램 A phase equilibrium-V/L equilibrium 상평형 예-기액 평형 3. Phase equilibrium 상평형 (same chemical potential for mixture or same Gibbs energy for pure substance chemical potential 또는 Gibbs에너지가 같다.))

12 石油化学工場 3D model 设计反应器: 化学反应工学 设计蒸馏塔: 热及物质传递 化工热力学 设计流体输送系统: 流体力学
设计换热器: 热及物质传递

13 Continuous distillation 연속 증류 連續 蒸溜
1. Flash distillation: single-stage partial vaporization without reflux 1단 증류 2. Rectification: multi-stage distillation with reflux 다단 증류 Flash distillation 플라쉬 증류 Rectification 정류

14 Distillation tower design
Flash vessel

15 2. Vapor/Liquid Equilibrium 기액 평형 氣液 平衡
기액평형은 증류의 基礎이다. 2. Vapor/Liquid Equilibrium 기액 평형 氣液 平衡 François-Marie Raoult ( ) A crude oil distillation column

16 V/L Equilibrium line for distillation column design
증류탑 설계를 위한 기액 평형 선 평형에 도달할 때까지 물질이 이동하기 때문에 평형 데이터는 증류 장치 설계에 기본이다. 일정 온도와 압력의 평형 상태에서 각 상의 조성은? At equilibrium Vapor Composition? Liquid Composition? 꼭 기억! X는 liquid phase에서의 mole fraction, y는 vapor phase에서의 mole fraction Composition을 구한다는 것은 각 성분의 mole fraction을 구하는 것과 같다.

17 Txy and Pxy diagrams for binary mixture 이성분 혼합물 二成分 混合物
Binary mixture의 V/L equilibrium에 대한 phase diagram을 얻는 방법은? 실험 또는 모델식에 의한예측 *Txy diagram 얻는 방법 (실험)-조성 달리하여 끓이면서 각 조성에 따른 Bubble point와 dew point를 측정한다. *Txy diagram의 활용-주어진 temperature와 pressure에서 equilibrium 상태에 있는 vapor phase와 liquid phase의 composition을 알 수 있다. * 순수한 물질의 diagram과 비교해 보라.

18 Experimental determination of V and L compositions, and separator temp
Experimental determination of V and L compositions, and separator temp. as function of f 각 상의 조성의 실험적 결정 방법

19 Prediction 예측 豫測 of the diagrams
서로 다른 수학적 방법 數學的 方法에 의한 Pxy diagram prediction

20 Simple models for VLE 기액 평형을 위한 간단한 모델들
The simplest are Raoult’s law and Henry’s law. Raoult’s law: The vapor phase is an ideal gas (apply for low to moderate pressure) The liquid phase is an ideal solution (apply when the species that are chemically similar) Although it provides a realistic description of actual behavior for a small class of systems, it is valid for any species present at a mole fraction approaching unity, provided that the vapor phase is an ideal gas.

21 Dewpoint and Bubblepoint calculation with Raoult’s law
라울의 법칙을 이용한 혼합물의 이슬점과 끓는점 계산 Four classes of dewpoint and bubble point calculations BUBL P: Calculate yi and P, given xi and T BUBL T: Calculate yi and T, given xi and P DEW P: Calculate xi and P, given yi and T DEW T: Calculate xi and T, given yi and P

22 1. BUBL P: Calculate yi and P, given xi and T
2. BUBL T: Calculate yi and T, given xi and P 3. DEW P: Calculate xi and P, given yi and T 4. DEW T: Calculate xi and T, given yi and P Psat의 溫度에 관한 식 利用 (iteration이 要求됨) Psat의 溫度에 관한 식 利用 (iteration이 要求됨)

23 Example for dewpoint and bubblepoint calculation with Raoult’s law
Binary system acetonitrile (1)/nitromethane(2) conforms closely to Raoult’s law. Vapor pressures for the pure species are given by the following Antoine equations: (a) Prepare a graph showing P vs. x1 and P vs. y1 for a temperature of 75°C. (b) Prepare a graph showing t vs. x1 and t vs. y1 for a pressure of 70 kPa.

24 Degree of freedom analysis 자유도 분석 自由度 分析
F=C-P+2 where F = degree of freedom (or the number of independent variables) 自由度 (獨立變數의 數) C = number of components 성분의 수 P = number of phases 상의 수 Ex) distillation of binary mixture 이성분계의 증류: F=2 If two variables are fixed, the equilibrium state of the system can be defined (intensive variables of interest can be determined) Flash distillation의 경우 T, P 정하여 조성-x, y 결정됨. Rectification의 경우 T, x (또는 y) 정하여 P, y (또는 x) 결정됨

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