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생명공학시대의 감자 연구 Potato in the age of biotechnology 농업생명공학연구원 분자생리과 변명옥.

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Presentation on theme: "생명공학시대의 감자 연구 Potato in the age of biotechnology 농업생명공학연구원 분자생리과 변명옥."— Presentation transcript:

1 생명공학시대의 감자 연구 Potato in the age of biotechnology 농업생명공학연구원 분자생리과 변명옥

2 세계의 감자 생산 변화

3 캐나다 감자 genome 프로젝트 The Canadian Potato Genome Project (CPGP, To produce high-quality cDNA libraries for at least 100, 000 EST sequences from multiple libraries To generate a micro-array consisting of at least 10, 000 non- redundant genes To produce a large population of activation-tagged mutant plants for trait screening. Novel approaches, such as activation tagging 4 and 5 and virus- induced gene silencing (VIGS)45

4 :Rick Walden at the Max Planck Institute in Cologne. -Rick's T-DNA vector contained four copies of an enhancer element from the constitutively active cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV 35S) promoter :-417 to -86. -These enhancers can cause transcriptional activation of nearby genes, -activated genes will be associated with a T-DNA insertion: activation tagging activation tagged lines : 7597 activation tagged mutant potato lines (May 02, 2006)

5 Copyright ©2004 American Society of Plant Biologists Faivre-Rampant, O., et al. Plant Physiol. 2004;134:1308-1316 가지과 작물의 대량 변이체 제작 : PVX VIGS vector

6 감자 육종과 생명공학 역병저항성 유전자 ( Phytophthora infestans): 야생종 감자에서 3 종 분리 Solanum bulbocastanum (RB [23],Rpi-blb1 [24], Rpi-blb2 [25]) 내충성 유전자 Bt gene: Colorado beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) 병방어 유전자분리 :Verticillium dahliae :a Medicago sativa cysteine-rich defensin 항균단백질 : temporin A.( Phytophthora erythroseptica and P. infestans 에 효과 ) 역병저항성 증진 : gene silencing and hydrogen peroxide, which also conferred resistance to the bacterial soft-rot pathogen Erwinia carotovora. 바이러스 저항성 유전자 : PVY and PVX : heterologous potato leaf roll virus ORF4 gene RNA silencing: engineer strong resistance to PVY

7 역병저항성유전자 (Phytophthora infestans) the combination of map-based cloning with an Agrobacterium-based transgenic approach has permitted the characterization and introgression of genes from the wild species Solanum bulbocastanum (RB, Rpi-blb1, Rpi-blb2) that confer strong resistance to Phytophthora infestans RB 저항성 유전자 도입 감자의 역병저항성 사진 ( 좌측열 : 대조, 우측열 : GM 감자, 접종후 21 일 후 촬영 )

8 Figure 1 (from previous page) Potato function map for pathogen resistance. Twelve linkage groups corresponding to the 12 potato chromosomes are shown schematically with approximate genetic distances. Relative positions of potato/tomato anchor markers are indicated in black to the left of the linkage groups. Mapped R genes and QTL for resistance to different pathogens of potato (solid letters) or tomato, tobacco and pepper (outlined letters) are shown at their approximate map positions relative to anchor markers. Different colors indicate the pathogen type. Green: genes for resistance to fungi. Red: genes for resistance to nematodes and aphids. Blue: genes for resistance to viruses. Map segments having QTL for resistance to P. infestans and E. carotovora ssp. atroseptica are marked as green and violet rectangles, respectively. Loci mapped with resistance gene-like markers of potato (St and RGL loci) are indicated in purple to the right of the linkage groups. Loci detected by pathogenesis related and defense gene markers of potato or tobacco (Nt loci) are shown in blue to the right. Small letters in parenthesis indicate that the same marker probe identifies more than one locus. For further details the reader is referred to Table 1 and References 37, 59, 78, 119, 106. 감자 유전자 지도

9 산업화를 위한 감자의 이용 탄수화물 대사에 이용 - 전분의 amylose 함량 :plastidic ATP and/or ADP transporter 활성 조절로 27% 증진 - 전분함량증진 : 60% 증가 -antisense 로 전분합성 유전자 억제 : three starch synthase genes - 산업화 가능성 검정 :field-testing GM potato with altered starch profiles

10 식물 항체 생산 the first to demonstrate human immunogenicity to an in planta produced vaccine candidate : capsid protein of the Norwalk virus The potential of using an edible, plant-based vaccination system for protection against HIV-1 infection has been demonstrated using transgenic potato expressing the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120. the potential of using a potato-based vaccine in a global immunization programme against hepatitis B

11 상업화를 위해 등록된 감자 품종 ( 몬산토 ) NewLeaf™ : Colorado beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) 1995 NewLeaf Plus™: potato leaf roll virus (PLRV) NewLeaf Y™ :potato virus Y (PVY),

12 The primary objective of the PGSC is to elucidate the complete DNA sequence of the potato genome (840 Mb) by the end of 2010. This task will be performed by a consortium of international Parties, which are experienced in large scale sequencing efforts and have an excellent track record in potato research 감자유전체 연구 Potato Genome Sequencing Consorsium The Netherlands Genomics Initiative (NGI)

13 참고자료 Ewen Mullins, Dan Milbourne, Carlo Petti, Barbara M. Doyle- Prestwich and Conor Meade(2006) Potato in the age of biotechnology, Trends in plant science 11:254-260 Gebhardt, C. and Valkonen, J.P.T. (2001) Organization of genes controlling disease resistance in potato. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 39,79–102

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